Reader Comments

BROMO TOUR PACKAGE | BROMO TOUR | BROMO IJEN TOUR

by mr bromo tour package (2018-10-17)


what a survivor must have is: bromo tour package

Mental attitude; The spirit to stay alive, Self-confidence, Common sense, Discipline and mature plans and the ability to learn from experience]
Knowledge; How to make bivouac, How to get water, How to get food, How to make fire, Knowledge of field orientation, How to deal with animal disorders, How to find help
Experience and practice; Exercises to identify plants, practice making traps, etc.
Equipment; Survival box, jungle knife, etc.


Steps that must be taken if you / your group get lost:

Coordinate members
Do first aid
Seeing the ability of members
Hold field orientation
Hold food rationing
Make plans and assignments
Trying to connect communication with the world
Make a trail and attention
Get help


Dangers in Survival

There are many dangers in the survival that we will face, including:

Tension and panic

Prevention Method: Frequent practice, Positive and optimistic thinking and physical and mental preparation


Sun / heat

Heat exhaustion
Hot spasms
Heat shock
Circumstances that increase the severity of the heat: Acute / chronic disease, recovering from fever, just getting vaccinated, sleep deprivation, tiredness, too fat, even skin disease, having experienced hot air stings, drinking alcohol, dehydration Prevention of heat:

Acclimation
Water supply
Reduce activity
Kitchen salt
Clothes: Loose, Long sleeves, Shorts, T-shirts


Disease attack
Diseases that are commonly suffered by outdoor activists are: Dams, Disentri, Typus, Malaria

Mental deterioration
Symptoms: Weak, lethargic, unable to think well, hysterical
Cause: Psychology and physical weakness or tense environmental conditions
Prevention: Try to be calm and of course practice a lot

The danger of poisonous and poisonous animals
Poisoning

■ Symptoms; Dizziness and vomiting, abdominal pain and spasms, sometimes diarrhea, convulsions throughout the body, can faint.
■ Cause: Poisonous food and drinks
■ Prevention: Salt water is drinkable, Drink hot soapy water, drink concentrated tea or in the tohok of the children of the teak


Very tired
Prevention: Eat calorie foods and restrict activities

Other hazards in survival are: Hunger, Blisters, Cold [to reduce body temperature 30 ° C can cause death]


Making a Bivouck (Shelter)

Making a bivouck or shelter protection in an emergency situation actually aims to protect yourself from wind, heat, rain, cold and animal disturbances.


Bivouck types:

Natural shelter; Cave [which is not an animal hiding place, there is no toxic gas and is not easily avalanche]. Remember! inside the cave don't scream because it can tear down the cave wall.
Artificial shelter from nature; wide leaves, wood twigs, or half of nature and half of butane [for example ponchos in combination with stone niches or fallen trees or wood twigs]


Bivouck terms:

Avoid watersheds [if forced, then use bivouck stage]
Above the bivouck / shelter there are no dead / fragile tree branches
Not a mosquito / insect nest
Strong material
Do not overly damage the surrounding environment
Directly protected from the wind Overcoming Animal Disorders

Mosquitoes; Mosquito repellent, autan, etc


Laron; Repel too many larvae with hung chilies

Stung by a Bee; Apply red onion water to sting wounds many times, attach wet / clay soil over sting wounds, do not massage, massage, attach hot broken pieces on the wound, spread with petin to prevent swelling

Leech Bites; Drop the tobacco water on the leech, Sprinkle the salt on the leech, Suck the raw orange juice on the leech, Sprinkle the cigarette ash on the leech, Throw [scavenge] the leech to try to break the living wood with the cambium.

Itching Ants; Rub the rubbing medicine on the bite wound, place the red chili on the ant's path, place the torn betel leaf on the ant's path

Scorpions and centipedes; Massage the area around the wound until the poison comes out, tie the body to the base of the bite, attach the crushed acid on the wound, sprinkle pepper powder and cooking oil on the wound, sprinkle salt around the bivouck for prevention

Snakes etc; To prevent and treat emergency bites and stings, deadly venomous animals must study Emergency Medical Care [EMC]


Reading Traces

There are several types of traces that can be identified, namely artificial traces, that is, traces made by humans and natural traces, namely traces as a sign of environmental conditions.

Natural traces usually state about the types of animals that pass and are around, the direction of movement of animals, the size of the animal, the slow motion of animals. To read the natural traces of [animals] can be seen from the palm left, the remaining dirt, broken trees or twigs, mud or soil scattered on the grass.

Water

A person in normal and healthy condition can survive around 20-30 days without eating, but that person can only survive 3-5 days without water.

There is water that does not need to be purified, such as direct rainwater. To get rainwater directly in the sirvive situation in the wild, it can be done by accommodating it with a large poncho or leaf and flowing to a shelter [nesting or phipless] Water from vines / rattan or bamboo. How to get it, which is cut as high as possible and then cut to the near part of the ground, dripping water can be directly collected or dripped into the mouth.
In addition to rattan, bamboo and vines, water can also be obtained in flowers (semar bags) and moss.

Water that must be purified in advance includes large river water, stagnant river water, water obtained by digging sand on the beach (+ 5 meters from the tidal level). To get water in a dry river area, how to dig a hole under the rock

Next the water can also be obtained from the banana stems, how to cut the banana tree trunks, so that the remaining one is left underneath [the bunks] and then make a hole in the middle, the water will come out, usually can come out up to 3 times.


Food

In living conditions in a free environment there are various foods that can be consumed, but must pay attention to some of the following terms and conditions:

Foods eaten by apes can also be eaten by humans
Be careful of plants and fruit that are strikingly colored
Avoid foods that remove white sap, such as soap except sapodilla and papaya.
Plants that will be eaten first try to be applied to the hands, arms, lips and or tongue, wait a moment. If it feels safe to eat.
Avoid foods that are too bitter or sour


Note;

Water and food relations; For foods that contain carbohydrates need little water, packaged snacks will accelerate thirst, foods that contain protein need lots of water.

Edible plants can be known from physical characteristics, for example: The surface of the leaves or stems that are not hairless or thorny, do not remove sap that is very sticky, does not cause itching, this can be tried by applying the leaves to the skin or lips and does not cause very bitter taste [can be tried on the tip of the tongue]


Edible parts of plants are stems:

Banana tree trunks (white)
Young bamboo (bamboo shoots)
The inner Fern is white
The inner sago is white
Cane


Edible plant parts are leaves:

Watercress
Rasamala (who is still young)
Mlinjo leaves
Cassava

Edible parts of plants are roots and tubers:

Sweet potatoes, taro, cassava

Edible plant parts in the form of fruit:
Arbei, tamarind, juwet

All edible plants:

Peanut mushrooms, wood mushrooms. But there are several types of fungi that have toxic characteristics:
Has a striking color
It smells bad
When put in rice, the rice turns yellow
Spoon becomes black when put in the dish
When touched easily destroyed
Have a bowl / bowl shape on the trunk
Grow from animal waste
Remove the white sap In addition to plants, various animals found in nature can be eaten as well, such as grasshoppers, crickets, white gendon, worms, birds, larvae, bees, larvae, snails, lizards and tails, green frogs, snakes [1/3 of the middle body], other large animals.


There are several characteristics of animals that can not be eaten, namely:

Animals that contain can: centipedes and scorpions
Animals that contain poison: sea turtles
Animals that contain a distinctive smell: skunk / senggung


Fire

If you have ingredients to make a fire, what you need to pay attention to is not to make the fire too big but make a small fire with a few fruits, this is better and the heat produced is evenly distributed.


How to make a fire in an emergency:

With a lens / magnifying glass; Focus the beam at one point where the combustible material is placed.
Wood friction with wood; This method is the most difficult way, how to swipe two sticks of wood so that it is hot and then bring the ignition material closer, so it burns
Bow and teacher; Make a strong bow using a shoelace or parachute, teach hard wood to other wood so that it looks smoke and provides igniter to make it easy to burn. A good igniter is kawul / coir found on the base of the coconut, or palm leaves


Survival kits

Survical kits are equipment for survival that must be carried on the journey as a means of guarding in the event of an emergency or can also be used during the trip.


Some examples of survival kits are:

Fishing line / hook
Knife / bayonet / vitrorinoc
Small rope
Flashlight
White mirror, small mirror
Whistle
Matches stored in a waterproof place [film tube roll]
Salt tablets, norit
Personal medicine
Needle + thread + pin
Poncho / raincoat / rain coat
Etc



BASIC NAVIGATION KNOWLEDGE

Inland navigation is a practical science. The ability to navigate can be honed if you practice frequently. Understanding of theory and concept is only a factor that helps, and does not guarantee that if you know the theory in full, the navigation capability becomes high. Even a navigator who has never practiced for a long time, can reduce his sensitivity in translating the signs on the map to the actual field, or translate the field signs into a map. For that reason, practicing as often as possible will help us to be able to hone sensitivity, and in the end the land navigation that we have learned will be useful for us.

In principle, navigation is a way of determining the direction and position, namely the direction to be directed and the position of the navigator's position in the actual plane projected on the map. Some basic media of land navigation are:

Map

A map is a two-dimensional depiction (on a flat plane) of a part or the entire surface of the earth that is seen from above, then enlarged or reduced by a certain ratio. Topographic maps are used in land navigation. This map maps the places on the surface of the earth with the same height from sea level to form contour lines.

Some elements that can be seen on the map:

Title of map; usually found above, showing the location of the map
Map number; other than as a registration number from the making body, we can use it as a guide if we will find a map later
Map coordinates; the explanation can be seen in the next sub
Contour; is an imaginary line that connects dots of the same height above sea level.
Map scale; is a comparison between map distance and horizontal distance in the field. There are two types of scales, namely the number scale (shown in numbers, for example 1: 25,000, one inch on the map equal to 25,000 cm or 250 meters in the actual situation), and the scale of the line (usually on the scale map below the number scale).
Map legend; are symbols used in the map, made to make it easier for readers to analyze maps.


In Indonesia, the map commonly used is the Bandung Geology Directorate output map, then the map of the Bureau of Topology, which is often referred to as the AMS (American Map Service) map created by the United States and on average issued in 1960.

AMS maps are usually 1: 50,000 with a contour interval (distance between contours) 25 m. In addition there is a more recent map produced by Bakosurtanal (National Survey and Mapping Coordination Agency), with a scale of 1: 50,000 or 1: 25,000 (with a contour interval of 12.5 m). The Bakosurtanal output map is usually colored.

Coordinate

Topographic maps are always divided into boxes to help determine the position map in a coordinate count. The coordinates are the position of a point on the map. In theory, coordinates are meeting points between abscis and ordinate. The coordinates are determined using the axis system, namely the intersection between lines perpendicular to each other. There are two official coordinate systems used:

Geographical Coordinate; The axes used are longitude (west longitude and east longitude) perpendicular to the equator, and latitude (north latitude and south latitude) that are parallel to the equator. Geographic coordinate express in degree, minute, and second. On the Bakosurtanal map, it usually uses geographic coordinates as the main coordinates. On this map, one box (or often called one character) is 3.7 cm wide. On a scale of 1: 25,000, one carvage is equal to 30 seconds (30 ″), and on the map a scale of 1: 50,000, one carvage is equal to 1 minute (60 ″).
Grid Coordinate (Grid Coordinate or UTM); In grid coordinates, the position of a point is expressed in terms of the distance of each reference point. For Indonesia, the reference point is west of Jakarta (60 LU, 980 BT). Vertical lines are numbered from south to north, while horizontally from west to east. The coordinate system recognizes the numbering of 4 numbers, 6 numbers and 8 numbers. On the AMS map, it usually uses grid coordinates. One carcass is proportional to 2 cm. Therefore, to determine the coordinates of the 4-digit grid coordinates, it can be directly determined. Determining the coordinates of the 6-digit grid, one carcass is divided first into 10 parts (per 2 mm). While the determination of the 8-digit grid coordinates is divided into ten parts (per 1 mm).


Map Analysis

One very important factor in land navigation is map analysis. With one map, we are expected to get as much information as possible about the actual terrain, even though we have never visited the area on the map.

Basic map; To be able to dig up as much information as possible, we must first check the basic information on the map, such as the map title, year the map was made, map legend and so on. Besides that, you can also analyze the height of a point (based on understanding of the contour), so that the weather and vegetation can be estimated.
Know the terrain mark; Besides the identifiers contained in the map legend, we can analyze topographic maps based on contour shapes. Some contour features that need to be understood before analyzing a field sign:
Between contour lines with each other never intersect
Lower altitude lines always surround a line with a higher altitude, unless specifically specified, such as a crater
The difference in height between contours is fixed even though the density changes
Flat areas have sparse contours while steep areas have tight contours.
Some tan Compass

Compass is a pointing device, and because of its magnetic properties, the needle will always point north-south (although the north meant here is not the real north, but magnetic north). Physically, compass consists of:

Agency, where other components are located
The needle, always pointing to the north south direction, with a note not close to another megnet / not affected by the magnetic field, and the movement of the needle is not disturbed / the map is in a horizontal position.
Indicator scale, is the division of the wind system.

Compass types commonly used in land navigation are of two kinds, namely a compass compass (eg a prism compass) and an orienteering compass (eg silva compass, suunto etc.). To aim at a point, the compass points if used correctly more accurately than the silva compass. But for the movement and ease of map ploting, the orienteering compass is more reliable and efficient.

In choosing a compass, it must be based on its use. But in general, a good compass is a compass whose needles can show the north consistently and do not shake for a long time. Material from the compass body also needs to be considered must be from a strong / resistant material considering the compass is one of the vital elements in land navigation

Cttn: GPS has been widely used [global positioning system] with satellite technology to replace several compass functions.

Map Orientation

Map orientation is to equalize the map with the actual terrain (or in other words equalize the north of the map with the actual north). Before you start the map orientation, try to get to know the signs of the surrounding terrain and its position on the map. This can be done by matching the name of the crop, the name of the river, village etc. So at least you know where your position is roughly. This map orientation only serves to convince you that the approximate position you map is correct. Map orientation steps:

Try to find a place that has an open view in order to see the signs of a striking field.
Prepare your compass and map, place it on a flat plane
Utarakan map, by referring to the compass, so that the direction of the map is in accordance with the direction of the actual field
Look for the most prominent field signs around you, and find the field signs on the map. Do this for some field marks
Remember the signs, their shape and place in the real field. Remember the typical things from the terrain sign.


If you have done it all, then you already have a rough estimate, where is your position on the map. To ensure your position accurately, the resection method is used.


Resection

The principle of resection is to determine our position on a map using two or more recognizable field marks. This technique requires at least two field marks that are clearly visible on the map and can be targeted on the actual terrain (for resection exercises are usually done in an open field such as a tea garden for example, so that the extreme terrain is clearly visible).

Not every field mark must be targeted, at least two, but the position is certain.
Steps to do resection:

Perform map orientation
Look for field marks that are easily recognizable in the field and on maps, at least 2 pieces
With a bow and a ruler, make a cross axis on the signs of the field (for writing instruments, it is ideal to use mechanical pencil-B2).
Aim the field signs from our position by using the aiming compass. Orienteering compasses can be used, but are less accurate.
Move the back azimuth angle of the shot to the map and calculate the angle of the straightener. Do this on each field mark that is used as a reference point.
The intersection of the lines drawn from the corners of the straightener is our position on the map.