Hubungan penggunaan smartphone dan kinerja akademik di kalangan mahasiswa

Morissan Morissan


This research examined the relationship between smartphone usage and academic achievement in university students. The sample of this research was 598 university students in Jakarta. Several important factors, such as self-efficacy, academic efficacy, gender, smoking habit, and romantic relationships were taken into consideration in determining the relationship. First, and independent sample t-test and ANOVA were conducted to determine if academic performance was influenced by the three predictors (sex, smoking habit, and romantic relationship). Second, hierarchical multiple regression was done to find out whether there was a significant relationship between smartphone usage and academic performance by controlling the overall predictor variables. The findings revealed that the female group exhibited better academic performance, as did the students who did not smoke and had no romantic partners. Furthermore, the multiple hierarchical regression indicated that among all predictors examined, smoking habit was the most significant moderator that influences academic performance (β = -0.22, p<0.001), followed by smartphone usage (β = 0.14, p<0.001).


smartphone; academic performance; university students; gadgets; education

Full Text:



Al-Harthy, I. S., Was, C. A., & Isaacson, R. M. (2010). Goals, efficacy and metacognitive self-regulation a path analysis. International Journal of Education, 2(1).

Aljomaa, S. S., Mohammad, M. F., Albursan, I. S., Bakhiet, S. F., & Abduljabbar, A. S. (2016). Smartphone addiction among university students in the light of some variables. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 155–164.

Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 2, pp. 21–41.

Betts, J. R., & Morell, D. (1999). The determinants of undergraduate Grade Point Average: The relative importance of family background, high school resources, and peer group effects. Journal of Human Resources, 34(2), 268–293.

Bianchi, A., & Phillips, J. G. (2005). Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 8(1), 39–51.

Billieux, J., Van Der Linden, M., & Rochat, L. (2008). The role of impulsivity in actual and problematic use of the mobile phone. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(9), 1195–1210.

Bull, P., & McCormick, C. (2012). Mobile learning: Integrating text messaging into a community college pre-algebra course. International Journal on E-Learning: Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education, 11(3), 233–245.

Camara, W. J., & Echternacht, G. (2000). The SAT[R] I and High School Grades: Utility in Predicting Success in College. Research Notes. Retrieved from

Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., Alessandri, G., Gerbino, M., & Barbaranelli, C. (2011). The contribution of personality traits and self-efficacy beliefs to academic achievement: A longitudinal study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(1), 78–96.

Cash, H., D. Rae, C., H. Steel, A., & Winkler, A. (2012). Internet addiction: A brief summary of research and practice. Current Psychiatry Reviews, 8(4), 292–298.

Chakraborty, S. (2006). Mobile phone usage patterns amongst university students: A comparative study between India and USA. 1–51. Retrieved from

Chen, S. Y., & Tzeng, J. Y. (2010). College female and male heavy internet users’ profiles of practices and their academic grades and psychosocial adjustment. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(3), 257–262.

Demirci, K., Orhan, H., Demirdas, A., Akpinar, A., & Sert, H. (2014). Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the smartphone addiction scale in a younger population. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Bulteni, 24(3), 226–234.

Divan, H. A., Kheifets, L., Obel, C., & Olsen, J. (2012). Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66(6), 524–529.

Frangos, C. C., Frangos, C. C., & Sotiropoulos, I. (2011). Problematic internet use among Greek university students: An ordinal logistic regression with risk factors of negative psychological beliefs, pornographic sites, and online games. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(1–2), 51–58.

Furman, W., & Shaffer, L. (2003). The role of romantic relationships in adolescent development. In Adolescent Romantic Relations and Sexual Behavior: Theory, Research, and Practical Implications (pp. 3–22).

Ginige, P. (2017). Internet Addiction Disorder. Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

Giordano, P. C., Phelps, K. D., Manning, W. D., & Longmore, M. A. (2008). Adolescent academic achievement and romantic relationships. Social Science Research, 37(1), 37–54.

Grant, J. E., Potenza, M. N., Weinstein, A., & Gorelick, D. A. (2010, September). Introduction to behavioral addictions. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Vol. 36, pp. 233–241.

Greenfield, D. N. (1999). Virtual addiction: Sometimes new technology can create new problems. Retrieved September, 28, 2005. Retrieved from

Griffiths, M. D. (1995). Technological addictions. Clinical Psychology Forum.

Junco, R., & Cotten, S. R. (2012). No A 4 U: The relationship between multitasking and academic performance. Computers and Education, 59(2), 505–514.

Klomegah, R. Y. (2007). Predictors of academic performance of university students : An ppplication of the goal efficacy model. College Student Journal, 41(2), 407–415.

Lam, L. T., Peng, Z. W., Mai, J. C., & Jing, J. (2009). Factors associated with internet addiction among adolescents. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 12(5), 551–555.

LaRose, R., & Eastin, M. S. (2004). A social cognitive theory of internet uses and gratifications: Toward a new model of media attendance. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(3), 358–377.

LaRose, R., Lin, C. A., & Eastin, M. S. (2003, August). Unregulated internet usage: Addiction, habit, or deficient self-regulation? Media Psychology, Vol. 5, pp. 225–253.

Larose, R., Mastro, D., & Eastin, M. S. (2001). Understanding internet usage: A social-cognitive approach to uses and gratifications. Social Science Computer Review, 19(4), 395–413.

Lemish, D., & Cohen, A. A. (2005). On the gendered nature of mobile phone culture in Israel. Sex Roles, 52(7–8), 511–521.

Levine, L. E., Waite, B. M., & Bowman, L. L. (2007). Electronic media use, reading, and academic distractibility in college youth. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 10(4), 560–566.

Lin, Y. H., Chang, L. R., Lee, Y. H., Tseng, H. W., Kuo, T. B. J., & Chen, S. H. (2014). Development and validation of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI). PLoS ONE, 9(6), e98312.

Manning, W. D., Giordano, P. C., Longmore, M. A., & Hocevar, A. (2010). Romantic relationships and academic/career trajectories in emerging adulthood. In F. D. Fincham & M. Cui (Eds.), Romantic Relationships in Emerging Adulthood (pp. 317–334).

Mirawati, I., Suryana, A., Agustin, H., & Hidayat, M. (2019). Identifying the victims of workplace cyberbullying among lecturers. Jurnal Studi Komunikasi (Indonesian Journal of Communications Studies), 3(2), 151.

Neemann, J., Hubbard, J., & Masten, A. S. (1995). The changing importance of romantic relationship involvement to competence from late childhood to late adolescence. Development and Psychopathology, 7(4), 727–750.

Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66(4), 543–578.

Paulsen, M. B., & Gentry, J. A. (1995). Motivation, learning strategies, and academic performance: A study of the college finance classroom. Financial Practice & Education, 5(1), 78–89. Retrieved from

Poushter, J. (2016). Smartphone Ownership and Internet Usage Continues to Climb in Emerging Economies. In Pew Research Center. Retrieved from

Rees, H., & Noyes, J. M. (2007). Mobile telephones, computers, and the Internet: Sex differences in adolescents’ use and attitudes. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 10(3), 482–484.

Sánchez-Martínez, M., & Otero, A. (2009). Factors Associated with Cell Phone Use in Adolescents in the Community of Madrid (Spain). CyberPsychology & Behavior, 12(2), 131–137.

Schunk, D. H., Pintrich, P. R., Meece, J. L., & Pintrich, P. R. (2008). Motivation in education : theory, research, and applications. 433.

Shaw, M., & Black, D. W. (2008). Internet addiction: Definition, assessment, epidemiology and clinical management. CNS Drugs, Vol. 22, pp. 353–365.

Staffer, H. J. (1996). Understanding the means and objects of addiction: Technology, the internet, and gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12(4), 461–469.

Tao, Y. H., & Yeh, C. R. (2013). Transforming the personal response system to a cloud voting service. In S. Uesugi (Ed.), IT Enabled Services (Vol. 9783709114, pp. 139–156).

Thoonen, E. E. J., Sleegers, P. J. C., Peetsma, T. T. D., & Oort, F. J. (2011). Educational studies. In Educational studies (Vol. 37). Routledge.

Ting, S. M. R., & Robinson, T. L. (1998). First-Year academic success: A prediction combining cognitive and psychosocial variables for Caucasian and African American students. Journal of College Student Development, 39(6), 599–610.

Tsitsika, A., Critselis, E., Kormas, G., Konstantoulaki, E., Constantopoulos, A., & Kafetzis, D. (2009). Adolescent pornographic internet site use: A multivariate regression analysis of the predictive factors of use and psychosocial implications. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 12(5), 545–550.

Van Deursen, A. J. A. M., Bolle, C. L., Hegner, S. M., & Kommers, P. A. M. (2015). Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 411–420.

Walpole, M. B. (2003). Socioeconomic Status and College: How SES Affects College Experiences and Outcomes. Review of Higher Education, Vol. 27, pp. 45–73.

Walsh, S. P., White, K. M., Cox, S., & Young, R. M. D. (2011). Keeping in constant touch: The predictors of young Australians’ mobile phone involvement. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 333–342.

Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2005, October). Exposure to Internet pornography among children and adolescents: A national survey. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, Vol. 8, pp. 473–486.

Young, K.S. (1999). Internet addiction: Symptoms, evaluation and treatment. Innovation in Clinical Practice, 17, 1–13.

Young, Kimberly S. (1998). Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 1(3), 237–244.

Young, Kimberly S. (2007). Cognitive behavior therapy with internet addicts: Treatment outcomes and implications. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 10(5), 671–679.

Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Self-Motivation for academic attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29(3), 663–676.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Labuhn, A. S. (2011). Self-regulation of learning: Process approaches to personal development. In APA educational psychology handbook, Vol 1: Theories, constructs, and critical issues. (pp. 399–425).

Zulkefly, S. N., & Baharudin, R. (2009). Mobile phone use amongst students in a university in Malaysia: Its correlates and relationship to psychological health. European Journal of Scientific Research, 37(2), 206–218.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed By:









JSK' StatCounter Report