The influences of social media toward the development of terrorism in Indonesia
This article analyses the influence of the use of social media among terrorist groups toward the development of terrorism in Indonesia. This research is crucial and interesting because the development of social media could be a prominent tool for a particular person or one group’s existence. Data were collected through literature reviews and studies on social media publications on the issue. The collected data were checked, classified, and analysed by using Nvivo plus 12. Based on the data analysis, it was found that terrorist groups have already used various social media such as Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, and WhatsApp to recruit, share their ideologies, and spread their threats towards people. Each activity has its target and steps to strengthen their existences. These groups have implemented artificial intelligence (AI) by arranging the content management strategy for using social media within their groups or collaborating with other terrorist organisations' links. The result of this study could be the consideration of government policies in facing the development of terrorist groups, primarily which exist in social media.
Bartlett, J., & Miller, C. (2013). The State of The Art: A Literature Review of Social Media Intelligence Capabilities for Counter-Terrorism. Demos, November.
Beale, S. (2018). Online Terrorist Speech, Direct Government Regulation, and the Communications Decency Act. Duke Law & Technology Review, 16(1), 333–350.
Bertram, L. (2016). Terrorism, the Internet and the Social Media Advantage: Exploring how terrorist organisations exploit aspects of the internet, social media and how these same platforms could be used to counter-violent extremism. Journal for Deradicalization, Summer(7), 225–252. https://doi.org/10.16309/j.cnki.issn.1007-1776.2003.03.004
Choirul, D. (2019). Polri Deteksi Ratusan Akun Media Sosial Terindikasi Terorisme. Indopolitika. https://indopolitika.com/polri-deteksi-ratusan-akun-media-sosial-terindikasi-terorisme/
Close, J. (2014). Terror Social Media and Extremism [Air Command and Staff College, Air University]. In Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama (Issue May). https://fas.org/sgp/crsTerror Social Media and Extremism/terror/R45713.pdf
Corera, G. (2020). ISIS “still evading detection on Facebook”, report says. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-53389657
Dean, G., Bell, P., & Newman, J. (2012). The Dark Side of Social Media : Review of Online Terrorism Published in Pakistan Journal of Criminology. Pakistan Journal of Criminology, 3(3), 103–122.
Desk, N. (2019). Suspected terrorists learned bomb-making through YouTube. The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2019/06/10/suspected-terrorists-learned-bomb-making-through-youtube.html
Djelantik, S. (2019). Islamic State and the social media in Indonesia. Journal of Content, Community and Communication, 9(2019), 146–155. https://doi.org/10.31620/JCCC.06.19/20
Downing, J. (2021). Memeing and Speaking Vernacular Security on Social Media: YouTube and Twitter Resistance to an ISIS Islamist Terror Threat to Marseille, France. Journal of Global Security Studies, 6(2), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1093/jogss/ogz081
Ehrmann, T. (2020). Social Media is Facilitating Islamic Radicalisation in Indonesia. ASEAN Today. https://www.aseantoday.com/2019/08/social-media-is-facilitating-islamic-radicalisation-in-indonesia/
Fahlevi, M., Saparudin, M., Maemunah, S., Irma, D., & Ekhsan, M. (2019). Cybercrime Business Digital in Indonesia. E3S Web of Conferences, 125(201 9), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/201912521001
Ghifari, I. F. (2017). Radikalisme Di Internet. Religious: Jurnal Agama Dan Lintas Budaya, 2(1), 123–134. https://doi.org/10.15575/jw.v39i1.575
Hendroy, F. A. (2018). The US National Efforts to Counter Domestic Terrorism: Progress and Controversy. Jurnal Global Strategis, 12(2), 69. https://doi.org/10.20473/jgs.12.2.2018.69-80
Hossain, M. S. (2015). Social Media and Terrorism. South Asian Survey, 22(2), 136–155. https://doi.org/10.1177/0971523117753280
Huey, L. (2015). This is Not Your Mother’s Terrorism: Social Media, Online Radicalization and the Practice of Political Jamming. Journal of Terrorism Research, 6(2), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.15664/jtr.1159
Idris, I. K. (2018). Government Social Media in Indonesia: Just Another Information Dissemination Tool. Jurnal Komunikasi: Malaysian Journal of Communication, 34(4), 337–356. https://doi.org/10.17576/JKMJC-2018-3404-20
IPAC. (2015). Online Activism and Social Media Usage Among Indonesian Extremists. Institure for Policy Analysis of Conflict, 24 (October 30 2015), 1–25. http://file.understandingconflict.org/file/2015/10/IPAC_24_Online_Activism_Social_Media.pdf
Irawanto, B. (2019). Making it personal : The Campaign battle on social media in Indonesia’s 2019 Presidential Election. Perspective, 28, 1–11. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/images/pdf/ISEAS_Perspective_2019_28.pdf
Junaedi, F. (2017). Relasi Terorisme dan Media. Jurnal ASPIKOM, 1(1), 15. https://doi.org/10.24329/aspikom.v1i1.5
Khader, M., Neo, L. S., Tan, J., Cheong, D. D., Chin, J., YULIANTO, J. E., & THENARIANTO, J. J. (2018). Social Media Response after an Attack: Perspectives from the Jakarta Bombings. Learning from Violent Extremist Attacks, 417–434. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789813275447_0022
Koehler, D. (2014). The Radical Online: Individual Radicalisation Processes and the Role of the Internet. Journal for Deradicalization, 1(2014), 116–134.
Kusyanti, A., Catherina, H. P. A., Puspitasari, D. R., & Sari, Y. A. L. (2018). Teen’s Social Media Adoption: An Empirical Investigation in Indonesia. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 9(2), 380–384. https://doi.org/10.14569/IJACSA.2018.090252
Kwon, K. H., Chadha, M., & Pellizzaro, K. (2017). Proximity and Terrorism News in Social Media: A Construal-Level Theoretical Approach to Networked Framing of Terrorism in Twitter. Mass Communication and Society, 20(6), 869–894. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2017.1369545
Lim, C. (2008). Indonesia takes an important step towards countering terrorism on social media. The ASEAN Post. https://theaseanpost.com/
Lim, M. (2013). Many Clicks but Little Sticks: Social Media Activism in Indonesia. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 43(4), 636–657. https://doi.org/10.1080/00472336.2013.769386
Mahyudin, E. (2016). An Overview upon the Challenge of Intelligence in Counter-Terrorism in Indonesia. Intermestic: Journal of International Studies, 1(1), 23–35. https://doi.org/10.24198/intermestic.v1n1.3
Mangku, D. G. S., & Itasari, E. R. (2015). Travel Warning in International Law Perspective. International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, 6(4), 33–35. https://www.ijbel.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Law22_PAID_IJBEL_TRAVEL-WARNING-IN-INTERNATIONAL-LAW-PERSPECTIVE-Klibel-2015_D22.pdf
Melki, J., & Jabado, M. (2016). Mediated public diplomacy of the Islamic state in Iraq and Syria: The synergistic use of terrorism, social media and branding. Media and Communication, 4(2A), 92–103. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v4i2.432
Miqdad, M., & Oktaviani, S. A. (2021). The Contribution of Social Media Value to Company’s Financial Performance: Empirical Evidence from Indonesia. Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 8(1), 305–315. https://doi.org/10.13106/jafeb.2021.vol8.no1.305
Nisa, E. F. (2018). Social Media and the Birth of an Islamic Social Movement: ODOJ (One Day One Juz) in Contemporary Indonesia. Indonesia and the Malay World, 46(134), 24–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639811.2017.1416758
Nuraniyah, N. (2019). The Evolution of Online Violent Extremism in Indonesia and the Philippines. Institute for Policy Analysis of Conflict, 5(5).
Poiitis, M. (2020). Angry M & M ’ s : Aggression Modeling and Minimisation in Online Social Networks. Elaboration of Dissertation as Part of Web and Data Science M.Sc. Programme, Faculty of Applied Sciences Computer Science Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
Putra, M. D. L. (2017). New Media and Terrorism: Role of the Social Media to Countering Cyber Terrorism and Cyber Extremism for Effective Response. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2754370
Putri, K. Y. S., Istiyanto, S. B., & Sugiyanta, L. (2018). Representation of Media Literacy in the Dimensions of Social Life in Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 434(1), 0–4. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/434/1/012271
Renaldi, A. (2018). Social Media is the New Front Line in Indonesia’s War on Terrorism. Vice. https://www.vice.com/en_asia/article/pavaj7/social-media-is-the-new-front-line-in-indonesias-war-on-terrorism
Reuter, C., Pätsch, K., & Runft, E. (2018). IT for Peace? Fighting Against Terrorism in Social Media – An Explorative Twitter Study. I-Com, 16(2), 181–193. https://doi.org/10.1515/icom-2017-0013
Rohmah, A. (2019). How Social Media Helps Spread Extremist Content in Indonesia, and What’s being Done About It. South China Morning Post. https://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/article/2182643/how-social-media-helps-spread-extremist-content-indonesia-and-whats-being
Salahudin, Nurmandi, A., Jubba, H., Qodir, Z., Jainuri, & Paryanto. (2020). Islamic Political Polarisation on Social Media During the 2019 Presidential Election in Indonesia. Asian Affairs. https://doi.org/10.1080/03068374.2020.1812929
Sari, B. D. A. C. (2017). Media literasi dalam kontra propaganda radikalisme dan terorisme melalui media internet. Peperangan Asimetrik, 3(1), 15–31.
Schmidt, L. (2018). Cyberwarriors and Counterstars: Contesting Religious Radicalism and Violence on Indonesian Social Media. Asiascape: Digital Asia, 5(1–2), 32–67. https://doi.org/10.1163/22142312-12340088
Slama, M. (2018). Practising Islam Through Social Media in Indonesia. Indonesia and the Malay World, 46(134), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639811.2018.1416798
Solahudin. (2018). Terrorism ‘zaman now’: is social media feeding radicalisation? Indonesia at Melbourne. https://indonesiaatmelbourne.unimelb.edu.au/terrorism-zaman-now-is-social-media-feeding-radicalisation/
Steckman Laura. (2015). Myanmar at the Crossroads The Shadow of Jihadist Extremism. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, 7(4), 10–16.
Sugihartati, R., Suyanto, B., & Hidayat, M. A. (2020). Channelisation strategies of radicalism among muslim university students in indonesia. Journal of Indonesian Islam, 14(2), 309–334. https://doi.org/10.15642/JIIS.2020.14.2.309-334
Sugihartati, R., Suyanto, B., & Sirry, M. (2020). The Shift from Consumers to Prosumers: Susceptibility of Young Adults to Radicalization. Social Sciences, 9(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9040040
Sutrisno, F. A. (2020). The Urgency of Indonesia Social Media Regulation in the Vortex of Terrorism. The Journal of Indonesia Sustainable Development Planning, 1(1), 20–30. https://doi.org/10.46456/jisdep.v1i1.28
Untari, D. T., Satria, B., Fikri, A. W. N., Nursal, M. F., & Winarso, W. (2020). Technology, Social Media and Behaviour of Young Generation in Indonesia; a Conseptual Paper. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 9(4), 986–989.
Wiemann, G. (2006). Terror on the Internet: the New Arena, the New Challanges. United States Institute Of Peace Press.
Jurnal Studi Komunikasi is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
The authors agree to the terms of this Copyright Notice, which will apply to this submission if and when it is published by this journal (comments to the editor can be added below).