Covid-19 health communication barriers in multicultural communities in Indonesia

  • Wulan Suciska Universitas Lampung
  • Bartoven Vivit Nurdin Universitas Lampung
Abstract views: 215 , PDF downloads: 158
Keywords: health communication, health belief, barriers, multicultural


The central government and local governments conducted a series of health communication efforts to deal with the Covid-19 pandemic. However, there is still a behaviour of rejection in the community that is published in the news in mass media, including online media. In public health, including health communication programs, especially in the health belief model, a person’s behaviour to follow or refuse can be influenced by health beliefs. Uncertainty can be an obstacle to behaviour. From a multicultural perspective, beliefs are one of the things that affect public health behaviour. This study tried to uncover the barriers to Covid-19 health communication in multicultural communities in Indonesia using online news content analysis methods on the five most popular news websites in Indonesia, namely,,,, and The results revealed that the top five barriers to health communication were religion (17.2%), survival (12.67%), beliefs that Covid-19 does not exist (9.9%), self-immunity confidence (9.9%), and stigma (9.9%).

References (2021). Top Sites in Indonesia.

Alhalaseh, L., Fayoumi, H., & Khalil, B. (2020). The Health Belief Model in predicting healthcare workers’ intention for influenza vaccine uptake in Jordan. Vaccine, 38(46), 7372–7378.

Bastani, P., & Bahrami, M. A. (2020). COVID-19 Related Misinformation on Social Media: A Qualitative Study from Iran (Preprint). Journal of Medical Internet Research.

Belim, C. B. (2021). To Be or Not To Be Healthy: A Question of Communication! In C. B. A. C. V. de Belim (Ed.), Health Communication Models and Practices in Interpersonal and Media Contexts Emerging Research and Opportunities (pp. 1–26). IGI Global.

Bhanot, D., Singh, T., Verma, S. K., & Sharad, S. (2021). Stigma and Discrimination During COVID-19 Pandemic. In Frontiers in Public Health (Vol. 8). Frontiers Media S.A.

Biddlestone, M. and K. M. D., Green, R., & Douglas, K. M. (2020). Cultural orientation, power, belief in conspiracy theories, and intentions to reduce the spread of COVID‐19. British Journal of Social Psychology, 59(3), 663–673.

Brennen, J. S., Simon, F. M., Howard, P. N., & Nielsen, R. K. (2020). Types, Sources, and Claims of COVID-19 Misinformation Key findings.

Bruns, D. P., Kraguljac, N. V., & Bruns, T. R. (2020). COVID-19: Facts, Cultural Considerations, and Risk of Stigmatisation. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 31(4), 326–332.

Carico Jr, R., Sheppard, J., & Thomas, C. B. (2021). Community pharmacists and communication in the time of COVID-19: Applying the health belief model. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 17, 17(1), 1984–1987.

Fathian-Dastgerdi, Z., khoshgoftar, M., Tavakoli, B., & Jaleh, M. (2021). Factors associated with preventive behaviours of COVID-19 among adolescents: Applying the health belief model. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 17(10), 1786–1790.

Haerpfer, C., Inglehart, R., Moreno, A., Welsel, C., Kizilova, K., Diez-Medrano, J., Lagos, M., Norris, P., Ponarin, E., & Puranen, B. ,. (2020). World Values Survey Wave 7 (2017-2022).

Hsieh, E., & Kramer, E. M. (2021). Rethinking Culture in Health Communication (Social Interaction as Intercultural Encounters. John Wiley and Sons.

Indonesian Indocator. (2020). Riset I2: Wacana Covid-19 Lebih Riuh Daripada Pilpres 2019 di Media.

Jose, R., Narendran, M., Bindu, A., Beevi, N., L, M., & Benny, P. V. (2021). Public perception and preparedness for the pandemic COVID 19: A Health Belief Model approach. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, 9, 41–46.

Kahissay, M. H., Fenta, T. G., & Boon, H. (2017). Beliefs and perception of ill-health causation: a sociocultural qualitative study in rural North-Eastern Ethiopia. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 124.

Kaholokula, J. K., Ing, C. T. I., Look, M. A., Delafield, R., & Sinclair, K. (2018). Culturally responsive approaches to health promotion for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders. Annals of Human Biology, 45(3), 249–263.

Lee, C., Duffy, S. A., Louzon, S. A., Waltje, A. H. W., Ronis, D. L., Redman, R. W., & Kao, T.-S. K. (2014). The Impact of Sun Solutions Educational Interventions on Select Health Belief Model Constructs. Workplace Health & Safety, 62(2), 70–79.

Mahindarathne, P. P. (2021). Assessing COVID-19 preventive behaviours using the health belief model: A Sri Lankan study. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 16(6), 914–919.

McElfish, P. A., Willis, D. E., Shah, S. K., Moore, K. B., Rojo, M. O., & Selig, J. P. (2021). Sociodemographic Determinants of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy, Fear of Infection, and Protection Self-Efficacy. Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, 12.

Mercadante, A. R., & Law, A. v. (2021). Will they, or Won’t they? Examining patients’ vaccine intention for flu and COVID-19 using the Health Belief Model. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 17(9), 1596–1605.

Napier, A. D., Ancarno, C., Butler, B., Calabrese, J., Chater, A., Chatterjee, H., Guesnet, F., Horne, R., Jacyna, S., Jadhav, S., Macdonald, A., Neuendorf, U., Parkhurst, A., Reynolds, R., Scambler, G., Shamdasani, S., Smith, S. Z., Stougaard-Nielsen, J., Thomson, L., … Woolf, K. (2014). Culture and health. The Lancet, 384(9954), 1607–1639.

Onoruoiza, S. I., Abdullahi, M., Babangida, D. U., & Kunle, Y. S. (2015). Using Health Beliefs Model as an Intervention to Non Compliance with Hypertension Information among Hypertensive Patient. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS, 20(9), 11–16. (2021, October 19). Coronavirus Pandemic (Covid-19). Ourworldindata.Org.

Rizkinaswara, L. (2021, August 21). Kominfo Temukan 1.819 Isu Hoaks Seputar Covid-19. Aptika Kemenkominfo.

Schiavo, R. (2014). HEALTH COMMUNICATION FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE Second Edition (2nd ed.). Jossey-Bass.

Shakhsheer, B. A., Bachier-Rodriguez, M., Shew, S. B., & Loeff, D. S. (2021). Ethics and multiculturalism in pediatric surgery. Seminars in Pediatric Surgery, 30(5), 151103.

Sovran, S. (2013). Understanding culture and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 1–10.

Srivastava, S., & Pradhan, M. (2018). Health beliefs across cultures: A review. IAHRW International Journal of Social Sciences Review, 6(9), 1859–1863.

Tan, L. F., & Seetharaman, S. K. (2021). COVID-19 outbreak in nursing homes in Singapore. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, 54(1), 123–124.

UNICEF. (2020). Survei Penerimaan Vaksin COVID-19.

Wardle, C., & Derakhshan, H. (2017). INFORMATION DISORDER : Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policy-making Information Disorder Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policymaking.

Wong, M. C. S., Wong, E. L. Y., Huang, J., Cheung, A. W. L., Law, K., Chong, M. K. C., Ng, R. W. Y., Lai, C. K. C., Boon, S. S., Lau, J. T. F., Chen, Z., & Chan, P. K. S. (2021). Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine based on the health belief model: A population-based survey in Hong Kong. Vaccine, 39(7), 1148–1156.

Workneh, T., Emirie, G., Kaba, M., Mekonnen, Y., & Kloos, H. (2018). Perceptions of health and illness among the Konso people of southwestern Ethiopia: persistence and change. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 14(1), 18.

Xiang, Y.-T., Zhao, Y.-J., Liu, Z.-H., Li, X.-H., Zhao, N., Cheung, T., & Ng, C. H. (2020). The COVID-19 outbreak and psychiatric hospitals in China: managing challenges through mental health service reform. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 16(10), 1741–1744.

How to Cite
Suciska, W., & Nurdin, B. V. (2022). Covid-19 health communication barriers in multicultural communities in Indonesia. Jurnal Studi Komunikasi, 6(3), 827-840.