Intercultural Competence in Fostering Teachers’ Reflection in Understanding Students’ Diversity

Oktifani Winarti


In recent decades, the development of multicultural competence, or synonymously called intercultural competence (IC), has been developed as a theoretical context in education areas. Teachers’ inner reflection can do more in specific aspect of learning quality by understanding students’ cultural differences through intercultural competence understanding. Adding self-reflection in the process of understanding interaction within different cultures and language will add more self-value in lessen the ethnocentricity. As teachers are having different culture experience, they would share to each other about the differences to another teacher, in which it allows the teachers to reflect from one another. This would subsequently, help teachers to run innerreflection to themselves, to dig more on their own values, that probably added after having cultural-changing experience


Keywords: Intercultural competence, teacher, student diversity

Full Text:



Adnett, N. 2010. The growth of international students and economic development: friends or foes?. [e-journal] 25(5). Available through: Newcastle University Online Library [03 January 2017]

Bennett, M.J. 1993. Towards a Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity. In R. M. Paige( ed.) Education for the Intercultural Experience. [e-journal] 10(2). Available thourgh: Newcastle University Online Library [Accessed 04 January 2017]

Berger, J.G. 2004. Dancing on The Threshold of Meaning: Recognising and Understanding The Growing Edge. [e-journal] 2(4). Available through: Newcastle University Online Library [Accessed 03 January 2017]

Branson, C.M. 2005. Exploring the concept of values-led principalship, Leading and Managing. [e-journal] 11(1). Available through: Newcastle University Online Library [Accessed 03 January 2017]

Brunner, I., & Guzman, A. (1989). Participatory evaluation: A tool to assess projects and empower people. New Directions for Program Evaluation. [ejournal] 1989(42). Available thourgh: [Accessed 05 January 2017]

Buttjes, D., Byram.M. 1991. Mediating Language and Cultures: Towards An Intercultural Theory of Foreign Language Education. Clevedon: Multingual Matters.

Byram, M. 1997. Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Elosua, M. R., et al. 2015. Intercultural Competence in the Education Process. [ejournal] Available thourgh: [accessed 05 January 2017]

Carroll, J., Ryan, J. 2007. Teaching International Students: Improving Learning for All. [e-book] Available thourgh: [accessed 05 January 2017]

Coupland, N., Jaworski, A. 2004. Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Metalanguage: Reflexivity, Evaluation and Ideology. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Deardorff, D.K. 2006. The Identification and Assessment of Intercultural Competence. [e-journal] 2011 (149). Available through: [Accessed 03 January 2017]

Howard, T.C. 2003. Culturally relevant pedagogy: Ingredients for Critical Teacher Reflection. [e-journal] 42(3). Available through: Newcastle University Online Library [Accessed 03 January 2017]

Kadar, D.Z., Haugh, M. 2013. Understanding Politeness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Liddicoat, A. J. 2014. Pragmatics and intercultural mediation in intercultural language learning. [e-journal] 11(2). Available through: [Accessed 03 January 2017]

Mey, J. 1993. Pragmatics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

McConacy. 2013. Exploring for Intercultural Awareness Through a Focus on Conversational Routines. [e-journal] 22(2). Available through: (03 January 2017)

Liddicoat, A. J., McChonachy, T. 2016. Intercultural Competence in Education Alternative Approach for Different Times. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Moss, D. Marx, H. 2011. Please Mind the Culture Gap: Intercultural Development During a Teacher Education Study Abroad Program. [e-journal] 62(1). Available through: Newcastle University Online Library (03 January 2017)

OECD. 2009. Education at a glance 2009. Paris: OECD.

Romano, R., Cusher, K. 2007. Reflection on the importance and value of the overseas student-teaching experience, In K. Cushner and S. Brennan (Eds.), Intercultural Student Teaching: A Bridge to Global Competence. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Education.

Salmona, et al. 2015. Developing Culturally Competent Teachers: An International Student Teaching Field Experience. [e-journal] 40(4). Available through: Newcastle University Online Library [Accessed 04 January 2017]

Spindler, G. D., Spindler, L.S. 1994. Pathways to cultural awareness: Cultural therapy with teachers and students. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Triandis, H. C. 1994. Culture and Social Behaviour. New York: McGraw-Hill

Verschueren, J. 2000. Notes on The Role of Metapragmatic Awareness in Language Use. [e-journal] 10(4). Available through: [Accessed 03 January 2017]

Zarate, G., Levy, D., Karmsch, C. 2008. Handbook of Plurilingualism and Pluriculturalism. Paris: Edition des archives contemporaines



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments

Indexed By:









JSK' StatCounter Report