Critical analysis of Filipino TV's militarism and impact on societal awareness

  • Kenneth Michael Baba University of Newcastle
  • Rizza J. Sanchez University of the Philippines
Abstract views: 409 , PDF downloads: 219
Keywords: dictatorship; militarisation; public consciousness; propaganda; television


In the digital age, militarisation, encompassing police power, soldiers, and various military resources, has become increasingly prevalent in various forms of Philippine media. Thus, "Multimedia Militarisation" best describes how Philippine media instills ideals and manipulates mass audiences to accept the status quo. Right-wing propaganda normalises violence and warfare. In this paper, the authors argue that TV series like "Ang Probinsyano," "The General's Daughter," and "A Soldier's Heart" have played a significant role in shaping social consciousness. They have influenced how people view military personnel and what is philosophically referred to as state apparatuses, which encompass the police, military, justice system, and prison system, along with their respective leaders, as integral members of an ideal society. Furthermore, the authors consider it essential to reference historical instances, such as Hitler's Nazi Germany and Marcosian Philippines, where propaganda played a pivotal role in manipulating social consciousness through the dissemination of false information. The study identifies three main themes: the glorification of the armed branch of government, the normalisation of violence, and the introduction of revolutionary ideology to the public. Finally, this paper adopts a social-historical approach and critically analyses the current state of the country's mainstream media, highlighting its reactionary implications. It emphasises how these media outlets air films that advocate for the necessity of militarisation, all in the context of the progress of Philippine society and the evolving definition of patriotism within a populist cultural setting.



Althusser, L. (2006). Ideology and ideological state apparatuses (notes towards an investigation). The anthropology of the state: A reader, 9(1), 86-98.

Anderson, R., & Mirrlees, T. (2014). Introduction: Media, technology, and the culture of militarism: Watching, playing and resisting the war society. Democratic Communiqué, 26(2), 1.

Arora, S., & Jotwani, J. (2020). The Child Bride. Media Culture in Transnational Asia, 37.

Asis, E. (2020). "All-out war for justice and peace in A Soldier's Heart. Journal Online. hearts/

Bello, W. (2017) 'Rodrigo Duterte: A Fascist Original', in Curato N. (ed.) A Duterte Reader: Critical Essays on Rodrigo Duterte's Early Presidency, pp. 77–91. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Boggs, C. (2018). Fascism old and new: American politics at the crossroads. Routledge.

Borgmann, A. (1984). Technology and the character of contemporary life: A philosophical inquiry. University of Chicago Press.

Brooten, L. (2011). Media, militarisation, and human rights: Comparing media reform in the Philippines and Burma. Communication, Culture & Critique, 4(3), 229-249.

Choi, S. W., & James, P. (2007). Media openness, democracy and militarised interstate disputes. British Journal of Political Science, 37(1), 23-46.

Corner, J., & Parry, K. (2017). The media and the military. Media, Culture & Society, 39(1), 3-10.

Cox, R. W. (2005). Gramsci, hegemony and international relations: an essay in method. The Global Resistance Reader, 35-47.

Decker, J. D., & Brennan, P. S. (2014). Political Propaganda in the Feature Film Industries of Nazi Germany and Maoist China. Rupkatha Journal on Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 6(3), 51-61.

Der Derian, J. (2001). Virtuous War: Mapping the Military-Industrial-Media- Entertainment Network. Boulder: Westview Press.

Dikötter, F. (2019). How to Be a Dictator: The Cult of Personality in the Twentieth Century. Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Dressel, B., & Bonoan, C. R. (2019). Duterte versus the Rule of Law. J. Democracy, 30, 134.

Enloe, C. (2000). Maneuvers: The international politics of militarising women's lives. Univ of California Press.

Enloe, C. (2014). Bananas, beaches and bases: Making feminist sense of international politics. Univ of California Press.

Enloe, C. H. (1983). Does khaki become you?: the militarisation of women's lives. (No Title).

Feenberg, A. (2003). What is Philosophy of Technology, unpublished lecture

Gerth, J., & Brinkley, J. (1986). Marcos's Wartime Role Discredited in US Files. The New York Times, 23.

Haritos-Fatouros, M. (2019). The official torturer: A learning model for obedience to the authority of violence. In The Politics Of Pain (pp. 129-146). Routledge.

Howard, M. (1979). War and the nation-state. Daedalus, 101-110.

Jamilla, Philip. (2023). Primetime Impunity: Cardo Dalisay, the Populist Fantasy, and the Spectacle of State Violence in "FPJ's Ang Probinsyano".

Jason, G. J. (2013). Film and propaganda: the lessons of the Nazi film industry.

Kumar, R. (2018). Book review: AK Singh, Military and Media.

Lenoir, T. (2000). All but war is simulation: The military-entertainment complex. Configurations, 8(3), 289-335.

Limos, M. (2020).. "Ang Probinsyano Demystified: How Cardo Hypnotised the Nation" Esquire. popularity -demystified-a00293-20200605

Liow, J. C. Y. (2006). Muslim resistance in Southern Thailand and Southern Philippines: Religion, ideology, and politics.

Llanes, G. (2019). “Ang Probinsyano now on Neflix” Philippine Canadian Inquirer.

Marcuse, H. (1964). One dimensional man, Boston (Beacon Press)

Martin, B. (2006) Paths to social change: conventional politics, violence, and nonviolence. Nonviolent Alternatives for Social Change. EOLSS Publishers, Oxford, UK.

Meierding, E., & Sigman, R. (2021). Understanding the mechanisms of international influence in an era of great power competition. Journal of Global Security Studies, 6(4).

Pastrano, M. (2019). "How The General's Daughter entered the national conversation" Philippine Daily Inquirer. generals-daughter-entered-the-national-conversation

Qureshi, W. (2019). The militarisation of social media. University of Hawai'i Law Review, 42(1), 169-203.

Regan, P. (1994). "War Toys, War Movies, and the Militarisation of the United States, 1900-85." Journal of Peace Research 31, no. 1 45–58. stable/ 425582.

Sawer, M. (2007). Wearing your politics on your sleeve: The role of political colours in social movements. Social Movement Studies, 6(1), 39-56.

Scalice, J. (2023). The Drama of Dictatorship: Martial Law and the Communist Parties of the Philippines. Cornell University Press.

Schulte-Sasse, L. (1996). Entertaining the Third Reich: Illusions of wholeness in Nazi cinema. Duke University Press.

Sevgi, H., & Ozgokceler, S. (2016). Media And Cerattepe In Turkey: Althusser's Communications Ideological State Apparatus [ISA]–Oriented Assessment. Eurasian Journal of Social Sciences, 4(3), 14-24.

Sharma, P. (2021) Red: Colour of the Working Class. The Jamia Review

Shu, D. (2022). The Relevance of "Red Culture" in Contemporary China. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 10(4), 431-441.

Stone, T. L., Adams, S., & Morioka, N. (2008). Colour design workbook: A real-world guide to using colour in graphic design. Rockport Pub.

Tan, A. (2003). The indigenous roots of conflict in Southeast Asia: the case of Mindanao. In After Bali: The Threat of Terrorism in Southeast Asia (pp. 97-115). World Scientific Publishing.

Tiles, M., & Oberdiek, H. (2013). Conflicting visions of technology. Philosophy of Technology: The Technological Condition, 2, 249-59.

Ulita, S. (2019) "Policing the Media: A Textual Analysis of the Image of the Philippine National Police and its Members in the FPJ'S Ang Probinsyano" College of Mass Communication University of the Philippines Diliman Vol. 35, No. 1 Reason Papers 35, no. 1: 203-219.

Welch, D. (2004). Nazi propaganda and the Volksgemeinschaft: Constructing a people's community. Journal of Contemporary History, 39(2), 213-238.

How to Cite
Baba, K. M., & Sanchez, R. J. (2023). Critical analysis of Filipino TV’s militarism and impact on societal awareness. Jurnal Studi Komunikasi, 7(3), 682 - 695.