Main Article Content


Chlorella vulgaris is one of microalgae types that has essential ingredients beneficial to
humans, such as being a source of good lipid. Chlorella sp. have high lipid content, up to
30%, under autotrophic conditions considered as a promising candidate for commercial lipid
production due to its fast growth and easy cultivation. High cell density sedimentation can be
investigated as a starving method in cultivation to make microalgae conditions less favorable
in obtaining nutrient to lipid accumulation. Starving is one of the stress conditions carried out
with the aim of reducing nutrients in the microalgae cultivation process. The aim of this study
was to determine the effect of high cell density on increasing lipid content in Chlorella
vulgaris. The results of this study showed that high cell density method affected the
productivity of Chlorella vulgaris biomass. The data obtained were analyzed using ANOVA
α=0.05. The highest productivity and lipid content was obtained from the control sample with
a biomass value of 0.36±0.03 g/l and a lipid content of 56.2±4.6% (P<0.05). The conclusion
of this study is high cell density may not increase the production of lipid content from
Chlorella vulgaris


Chlorella vulgaris high density lipid starvation

Article Details

How to Cite
Pamungkas, K. D., Anam, K., & Budiati, T. (2023). Effect of High Cell Density to Lipid Content Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris on Photoautotrophic Cultivation: Effect of High Cell Density to Lipid Content Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris on Photoautotrophic Cultivation. Food Science and Technology Journal (Foodscitech), 6(2), 78-85.


  1. Bligh, E.G. and Dyer, W. J. (1959). A Rapid Method of Total Lipid Extraction and Purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, 37(8).
  2. Choi, W. Y., & Lee, H. Y. (2016). Effective production of bioenergy from marine Chlorella sp. by high-pressure homogenization. Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment, 30(1), 81–89.
  3. Hartati, R., Endrawati, H., Yudiati, E., & Iriani, V. R. (2012). Pengaruh Pengurangan Konsentrasi Nutrien Fosfat dan Nitrat Terhadap Kandungan Lipid Total Nannochloropsis oculata. ILMU KELAUTAN: Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences, 16(1), 24-29–29.
  4. Jay, M. I., Kawaroe, M., & Effendi, H. (2018). Lipid and fatty acid composition microalgae Chlorella vulgaris using photobioreactor and open pond. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 141(1).
  5. Kwak, H. S., Kim, J. Y. H., Woo, H. M., Jin, E. S., Min, B. K., & Sim, S. J. (2016). Synergistic effect of multiple stress conditions for improving microalgal lipid production. Algal Research, 19, 215–224.
  6. Li, Y., Horsman, M., Wang, B., Wu, N., & Lan, C. Q. (2008). Effects of nitrogen sources on cell growth and lipid accumulation of green alga Neochloris oleoabundans. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 81(4), 629–636.
  7. Safi, C., Zebib, B., Merah, O., Pontalier, P. Y., & Vaca-Garcia, C. (2014). Morphology, composition, production, processing and applications of Chlorella vulgaris: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 35, 265–278.
  8. Shen, X. F., Liu, J. J., Chauhan, A. S., Hu, H., Ma, L. L., Lam, P. K. S., & Zeng, R. J. (2016). Combining nitrogen starvation with sufficient phosphorus supply for enhanced biodiesel productivity of Chlorella vulgaris fed on acetate. Algal Research, 17, 261–267.
  9. Sibi, G., Shetty, V., & Mokashi, K. (2016). Enhanced lipid productivity approaches in microalgae as an alternate for fossil fuels – A review. Journal of the Energy Institute, 89(3), 330–334.
  10. Sierra, L. S., Dixon, C. K., & Wilken, L. R. (2017). Enzymatic cell disruption of the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for lipid and protein extraction. Algal Research, 25(March), 149–159.
  11. Tu, R., Jin, W., Han, S. fang, Zhou, X., Wang, J., Wang, Q., He, Z., Ding, W., Che, L., & Feng, X. (2019). Enhancement of microalgal lipid production in municipal wastewater: Fixation of CO2 from the power plant tail gas. Biomass and Bioenergy, 131(September), 105400.
  12. Visentainer, J. V., De Souza, N. E., Makoto, M., Hayashi, C., & Franco, M. R. B. (2005). Influence of diets enriched with flaxseed oil on the α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acid in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Food Chemistry, 90(4), 557–560.
  13. Widjaja, A., Chien, C. C., & Ju, Y. H. (2009). Study of increasing lipid production from fresh water microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 40(1), 13–20.