An Automatic Grain Dryer Prototype Using the PID Method as Temperature Controller

Akhmad Fahruzi, Ricky Rhamdany


The value of rice grain content after harvest is quite high, around 20-23% in the dry season, and around 24-27% in the wet season. It was drying grain after harvest was processed by the conventional or manual method that carried out the grain drying in the sun. This method has several disadvantages, such as the dependence on the weather, requires a large area, and 54 hours for drying so that the grain becomes dry with a moisture content of 14.12%. From this problem, the researchers made a grain drying machine that could work automatically. The drying machine is made to solve the issues of conventional grain drying so that the machine was completed with a K type thermocouple temperature sensor and grain moisture content. Whereas the heating media uses a fire that is fueled with LPG gas, and then the heat from the fire has flowed into the furnace or grain drying chamber. The heating arrangement was made by regulating of flowing LPG gas to the nozzle through the opened and closed variable valve where the valve shaft was connected to the DC motor shaft. The application of the PID method also used in this drying machine, which has a purpose while controlling the drying temperature to match the Set Value (SV) or the desired temperature at 38oC. The grain moisture content value is considered to have dried up when the grain moisture content value is 14%. The PID method that is implanted into the ATmega16 microcontroller will give a signal to the motor driver circuit to regulate the direction of rotation of the DC motor connected to the opened and closed valve variable. PID method testing was done by trial error and has produced a steady-state error of 5.2% at S0056=38oC with constant values Kp=2, Ki=2, and Kd=10. Whereas for drying grain testing on harvested is done by selecting Ciherang grain with a moisture content of 20% and a weight of 3 kg. The grain drying process takes 30 minutes so that the value of the water content becomes 14% with a drying temperature of 38oC, so the grain drying rate on this machine is 0.17% per minute.


grain drying; PID method; thermocouple; grain water content; atmega16

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