Indonesian covid-19 issue on media: review on spiral of silence application theory

  • Adrian Tawai Universitas Halu Oleo
  • Agung Suharyanto Universitas Medan Area
  • Teguh Dwi Putranto Universitas Airlangga
  • Broderick M. N. de Guzman Philippine Cultural College Manila
  • Ari Agung Prastowo Universitas Padjadjaran
Keywords: Indonesian, COVID-19 Issue, Media, Spiral of silence application theory.

Abstract

Covid-19 has resulted in a global health and socioeconomic crisis that is still unprecedented in history. Since Indonesia confirmed its first Covid-19 case, UNICEF has led several pandemic response efforts in collaboration with the government, the World Health Organization (WHO), and other partners. This research discussed the process of handling the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. The theory used in this research was the Spiral of Silence theory, while the method used van Dijk's Critical Discourse Analysis. The object of research was articles on Kompas.com published from August to December 2020. We concluded that the government provides too much security through nonverbal languages, such as not providing examples of the health protocol implementation that should have been implemented during the Covid-19 pandemic. Furthermore, there is still a sense of security generated in the absence of compliance with policies and sanctions that should have been implemented. As a result, the public has become oblivious to the applicable regulations and believes that the pandemic is not a major issue. As a result, this condition has worsened the Covid-19 pandemic situation in Indonesia.

References

Ali, I., & Alharbi, O. (2020). Covid-19: Disease, management, treatment, and social impact. Science of the Total Environment, 728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138861

Blofield, M., Hoffmann, B., & Llanos, M. (2020). Assessing the political and social impact of the Covid-19 crisis in Latin America. GIGA Focus.

Caraka, R., Lee, Y., Kurniawan, R., Herliansyah, R., Kaban, P., Nasution, B., Gio, P., Chen, R., Toharudin, T., & Pardamean, B. (2020). Impact of Covid-19 large scale restriction on environment and economy in Indonesia. Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 6, 65–84. https://doi.org/10.22034/GJESM.2019.06.SI.07

Creswell, J., & Poth, C. (2017). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. California: Sage publications.

De Vero, M., Gozum, I., & Melad, A. (2021). Prevention and planning as important factors in ensuring public health in the Philippines during the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Public Health. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdab058

Dwianto, A. (2021). Berhasil Tekan Penularan Covid-19, Ini Cara Singapura “Taklukkan” Corona. https://health.detik.com/berita-detikhealth/d-5322034/berhasil-tekan-penularan-covid-19-ini-cara-singapura-taklukkan-corona

Eriyanto. (2001). Analisis wacana: pengantar analisis teks media. LKiS Yogyakarta.

Ewart, J., & McLean, H. (2019). News media coverage of disasters: Help and hindrance. Journal of Applied Journalism & Media Studies, 8(1), 115–133.

Fauzi, M., & Paiman, N. (2020). Covid-19 pandemic in Southeast Asia: Intervention and mitigation efforts. Asian Education and Development Studies, 10(2).

Grimmelikhuijsen, S. G., & Meijer, A. J. (2015). Does Twitter increase perceived police legitimacy? Public Administration Review, 75(4), 598–607.

Hakobyan, A. (2020). Digitalization Of Communication And The Spiral Of Silence Theory. Wisdom, 14(1), 19–30.

Ibrahim, M., Abdillah, O., Wicaksono, A. F., & Adriani, M. (2016). Buzzer Detection and Sentiment Analysis for Predicting Presidential Election Results in a Twitter Nation. Proceedings - 15th IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshop, ICDMW 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICDMW.2015.113

Kompas.com. (2020a). 9 Bulan Pandemi Covid-19, Apa yang Salah dengan Penanganan di Indonesia? https://www.kompas.com/sains/read/2020/12/02/130600623/9-bulan-pandemi-covid-19-apa-yang-salah-dengan-penanganan-di-indonesia-?page=all

Kompas.com. (2020b). Penanganan Covid-19, Apa yang Bisa Dipelajari Eropa dari Swedia? https://www.kompas.com/tren/read/2020/09/26/093500965/penanganan-covid-19-apa-yang-bisa-dipelajari-eropa-dari-swedia-?page=all

Kompas.com. (2020c). Penanganan Covid-19 dan Terus Bertambahnya Korban Jiwa dari Kalangan Tenaga Medis. https://www.kompas.com/tren/read/2020/12/06/105100265/penanganan-covid-19-dan-terus-bertambahnya-korban-jiwa-dari-kalangan-tenaga?page=all

Kompas.com. (2020d). Penanganan Covid-19 di Indonesia Dinilai Kurang Berhasil, Ini Alasannya... https://www.kompas.com/tren/read/2020/08/24/083100765/penanganan-covid-19-di-indonesia-dinilai-kurang-berhasil-ini-alasannya-?page=all

Kompas.com. (2020e). Soal Penanganan Covid-19, Kebijakan Pemerintah Dinilai Tak Kompak. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2020/10/02/18100631/soal-penanganan-covid-19-kebijakan-pemerintah-dinilai-tak-kompak

Kompas.com. (2021). Setahun Pandemi di Indonesia, Apa Saja Penanganan Covid-19 yang Harus Dibenahi? https://www.kompas.com/sains/read/2021/03/02/120100823/setahun-pandemi-di-indonesia-apa-saja-penanganan-covid-19-yang-harus

Lee, J. R. (2017). Cyber Space and Digital Democracy in South Korea. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899X/185/1/012001

Lee, V., Chiew, C., & Khong, W. (2020). Interrupting transmission of Covid-19: Lessons from containment efforts in Singapore. Journal of Travel Medicine, 27(3). https://doi.org/10.1093/JTM/TAAA039

Li, M., Chen, W., & Zheng, G. (2019). The Internet Has Changed China: Ten Years of Online Public Opinion Incidents in China, 2003–2012. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4003-0_3

Megatsari, H., Laksono, A., Ibad, M., Herwanto, Y., Sarweni, K., Geno, R., & Nugraheni, E. (2020). The community psychosocial burden during the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Heliyon, 6(10). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05136

Mills, S. (1997). Discourse: The new critical idiom. London and New York: Routledge.

Mursal, M., Ritonga, M., Sartika, F., Lahmi, A., Nurdianto, T., & Alam, L. (2021). The contribution of Amil Zakat, Infaq and Shadaqah Muhammadiyah (LAZISMU) institutions in handling the impact of Covid-19. Journal of Sustainable Finance and Investment. https://doi.org/10.1080/20430795.2021.1886550

Naqqiyah, M. (2020). Analisis Framing Pemberitaan Media Online Cnn Indonesia. Com Dan Tirto. Id Mengenai Kasus Pandemi Covid-19. Jurnal Kopis: Kajian Penelitian Dan Pemikiran Komunikasi Penyiaran Islam, 3(01), 18–27.

Noelle-Neumann, E., & Petersen, T. (2004). The spiral of silence and the social nature of man. Handbook of Political Communication Research, 339–356.

Nugroho, R. (2020). Rekap Kasus Corona Indonesia Selama Maret dan Prediksi di Bulan April. https://www.kompas.com/tren/read/2020/03/31/213418865/rekap-kasus-corona-indonesia-selama-maret-dan-prediksi-di-bulan-april

Odagaki, T. (2020). Analysis of the outbreak of Covid-19 in Japan by SIQR model. Infectious Disease Modelling, 5, 691–698. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idm.2020.08.013

Olivia, S., Gibson, J., & Nasrudin, R. (2020). Indonesia in the Time of Covid-19. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 56(2), 143–174. https://doi.org/10.1080/00074918.2020.1798581

Osofsky, J., Osofsky, H., & Mamon, L. (2020). Psychological and Social Impact of Covid-19. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(5), 468–469. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000656

Perbawani, P. S., Rahayu, R., & Anshari, I. N. (2018). Online Political Participation and Netizen Anonymity in Indonesia's Digital Democracy. PCD Online Journal.

Pradana, M., Syahputra, S., Wardhana, A., Kartawinata, B., & Wijayangka, C. (2020). The Effects of Incriminating Covid-19 News on the Returning Indonesians' Anxiety. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 25(8), 656–661. https://doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2020.1771825

Rahadian, L. (2020). Survei Indo Barometer: Pemerintah gagal atasi Covid-19 dan isu-isu penyertanya. https://lokadata.id/artikel/survei-indo-barometer-pemerintah-gagal-atasi-covid-19-dan-isu-isu-penyertanya

Saidah, M., & Rusfian, E. Z. (2020). Hoax management of presidential staff office: An example of government public relations strategies. Jurnal Studi Komunikasi, 4(1), 32. https://doi.org/10.25139/jsk.v4i1.1769

Susilawati, S., Falefi, R., & Purwoko, A. (2020). Impact of Covid-19’s Pandemic on the Economy of Indonesia. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal): Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(2). https://doi.org/10.33258/birci.v3i2.954

Van Dijk, T. A. (1993). Principles of critical discourse analysis. Discourse & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926593004002006

WHO. (2020a). 100 days of Covid-19 in the Philippines: How WHO supported the Philippine response. https://www.who.int/philippines/news/feature-stories/detail/100-days-of-covid-19-in-the-philippines-how-who-supported-the-philippine-response

WHO. (2020b). Coronavirus disease (Covid-19) outbreak. https://experience.arcgis.com/experience/685d0ace521648f8a5beeeee1b9125cd

Windarwati, H., Ati, N., Paraswati, M., Ilmy, S., Supianto, A., Rizzal, A., Sulaksono, A., Lestari, R., & Supriati, L. (2021). Stressor, coping mechanism, and motivation among health care workers in dealing with stress due to the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102470

Wodak, R., & Meyer, M. (2016). Critical discourse studies: History, agenda, theory and methodology. Methods of Critical Discourse Studies. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-7361(09)70018-4

Yang, Y., Zhang, C., Fan, C., Yao, W., Huang, R., & Mostafavi, A. (2019). Exploring the emergence of influential users on social media during natural disasters. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 38(August). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101204

Zhang, L., Zhu, F., Xie, L., Wang, C., Wang, J., Chen, R., Jia, P., Guan, H., Peng, L., Chen, Y., Peng, P., Zhang, P., Chu, Q., Shen, Q., Wang, Y., Xu, S., Zhao, J., & Zhou, M. (2020). Clinical characteristics of Covid-19-infected cancer patients: a retrospective case study in three hospitals within Wuhan, China. Annals of Oncology, 31(7), 894–901. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annonc.2020.03.296

Zheng, Y. Y., Ma, Y. T., Zhang, J. Y., & Xie, X. (2020). Covid-19 and the cardiovascular system. In Nature Reviews Cardiology. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41569-020-0360-5

Published
2021-06-30
How to Cite
Tawai, A., Suharyanto, A., Putranto, T., de Guzman, B., & Prastowo, A. (2021). Indonesian covid-19 issue on media: review on spiral of silence application theory. Jurnal Studi Komunikasi, 5(2), 286-301. https://doi.org/10.25139/jsk.v5i2.3758
Section
Articles