Analisis Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Matematik Siswa SMP ditinjau dari Kemampuan Awal Matematik: Analisis Prakseologi pada Soal Geometri Bangun Datar

Abstract views: 133 , 4670 publish (Bahasa Indonesia) downloads: 67

Abstract

Abstract

Problem-solving ability is one of the mathematical abilities of the 21st century. This study aims to describe the mathematical problem-solving ability of junior high school students based on the category of mathematical early ability using a praxeological model. Praxeology consists of praxis blocks consisting of technique and type of task components and logos blocks consisting of theory and technology components. The praxeological model depicts seraphically from practice and knowledge. This research focuses on the praxis block, namely technique. This is qualitative research with a case study design involving 5 students each with high, medium, and low initial mathematics abilities. The results of the praxeology analysis showed that students with high and moderate early mathematics ability technique components in the epistemological model reference, although in some subcomponents there were errors. In the high category, the components of the techniques used were more diverse compared to students in the medium class. Whereas in students with low categories, the technique component on the epistemology model reference did not appear

 .Keywords: mathematical early ability, mathematical problem-solving ability, praxeology.

Abstrak

Kemampuan pemecahan masalah merupakan salah satu kemampuan matematika abad 21. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika siswa SMP berdasarkan kategori kemampuan awal matematika menggunakan model prakseologi. Prakseologi terdiri dari blok praxis yang terdiri dari komponen technique dan type of task serta blok logos yang terdiri dari komponen theory dan technology. Model prakseologi mengggambarkan secara spresifik dari praktik dan pengetahuan. Penelitian ini berfokus pada blok praxis yaitu technique. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan desain studi kasus yang melibatkan masing-masing 5 siswa dengan kemampuan awal matematika tinggi, sedang, dan rendah. Hasil penelitian berdasarkan analisis prakseologi menunjukkan bahwa siswa dengan kemampuan awal matematika tinggi dan sedang memenuhi komponen teknik dalam referensi model epistemology, meski pada beberapa subkomponen terdapat kesalahan. Pada kategori kemampuan tinggi, komponen teknik yang digunakan lebih beragam dibandingkan dengan siswa pada kategori kemampuan sedang. Sedangkan pada siswa dengan kategrori kemampuan rendah, komponen teknik pada referensi model epistemologi tidak muncul.

Kata Kunci: kemampuan awal matematika, kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika, model prakseologi.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

C. Erdem, “Introduction to 21st century skills and education,” in 21st Century Skills and Education, C. Erdem, H. Bac, and M. Koçyiit, Eds. UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2019.

G. Polya, How to solve it. Princeton, N. J: Princeton University Press, 1973.

A. H. Schoenfeld, “Polya, Problem Solving, and Education,” Math. Mag., vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 283–291, 1987, doi: 10.1080/0025570X.1987.11977325.

D. Căprioară, “Problem Solving - Purpose and Means of Learning Mathematics in School,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 191, pp. 1859 – 1864, 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.332.

A. H. Schoenfeld, “Teaching Problem-Solving Skills,” Am. Math. Mon., vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 794–805, 1980.

R. Mayer, Thingking, Problem Solving, Cognition. New York : W.H. Freeman and Company, 1983.

NCTM, Principles and Standars for Schools Mathematics. USA: Reston. V.A., 2000.

J. A. Van De Walle, Elementary and Middle School Mathematics: Teaching Developmentally, 6th ed. Boston: Pearson /Allyn and Bacon, 2007.

Demitra and Sarjoko, “Effects Of Handep Cooperative Learning Based on Indigenous Knowledge on Mathematical Problem Solving Skill,” Int. J. Instr., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 103–114, 2018, doi: 10.12973/iji.2018.1128a.

H. Tambunan, “The Effectiveness of the Problem Solving Strategy and the Scientific Approach to Students’ Mathematical Capabilities in High Order Thinking Skills,” Int. Electron. J. Math. Educ., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 293–302, 2019, doi: 10.29333/iejme/5715.

M. G. Gurat, “Mathematical Problem-Solving Strategies Among Student Teachers,” J. Effic. Responsib. Educ. Sci., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 53–64, 2018, doi: 10.7160/eriesj.2018.110302.

Novitasari and H. Wilujeng, “Analisis Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Matematika Siswa SMP Negeri 10 Tangerang,” Prima J. Pendidik. Mat., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 137–147, 2018, doi: 10.31000/prima.v2i2.461.

N. P. I. Cahyani, I. M. Suarsana, and G. A. Mahayukti, “Improving Student’s Mathematical Problem-Solving Skills Through Relating-Experiencing-Applying Cooperating-Transferring Learning Strategy and Graphic Organizer,” in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Science, Technology, Engineering and Industrial Revolution (ICSTEIR 2020), Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 2020, pp. 337–344.

C. I. Mutia, M. Ikhsan, and Saminan, “Mathematical problem-solving skills of junior high school students,” 2020, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1460/1/012010.

Munengsih, P. T. Safitri, and R. Sukmawati, “Analisis Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Matematis Siswa SMP pada Masa Pandemik Covid-19,” Imajiner J. Mat. dan Pendidik. Mat., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 312–321, 2021, doi: 10.26877/imajiner.v3i4.7267.

S. Arifin, Z. Zulkardi, P. Ratu Ilma Indra, and Y. Hartono, “Analisis Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Siswa SMP Ditinjau dari Kemampuan Memahami, Merencana, dan Menyelesaikan Masalah,” J. Gantang, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 29–38, 2021, doi: 10.31629/jg.v6i1.3050.

O. Asdarina, J. Rahmah, and Hajidin, “Upaya Guru Mengembangkan Karakter Berpikir Kritis dan Berpikir Kreatif Siswa Melalui Pembelajaran Matematika,” J. Peluang, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 31–43, 2019, doi: 10.24815/jp.v7i1.13752.

R. Dixon and R. Brown, “Transfer of Learning: Connecting Concepts During Problem Solving,” J. Technol. Educ., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 2–17, 2012, doi: 10.21061/jte.v24i1.a.1.

D. Wijayanti and C. Winslow, “Mathematical practice in texbooks analysis: Praxeological refence models, the case of proportion,” REDIMAT, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 307–330, 2017, doi: 10.17583/redimat.2017.2078.

H. Khusna and S. Ulfah, “Kemampuan Pemodelan Matematis dalam Menyelesaikan Soal Matematika Kontekstual,” Mosharafa J. Pendidik. Mat., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 153–164, 2021, doi: 10.31980/mosharafa.v10i1.857.

A. La Arua and Samron, “Analisis Pemodelan Matematika Siswa dalam Pemecahan Masalah Kontekstual Berdasarkan Kemampuan Matematika,” J. Ilm. Soulmath J. Edukasi Pendidik. Mat., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 33–52, 2022, doi: 10.25139/smj.v10i1.4257.

S. Arikunto, Dasar-dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan (Edisi Revisi). Jakarta: Bumi Aksara, 2012.

S. A. Widodo, Ibrahim, W. Hidayat, S. Maarif, and F. Sulistyowati, “Development of Mathematical Problem Solving Tests on Geometry for Junior High School Students,” J. Elem., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 221–231, 2021, doi: 10.29408/jel.v7i1.2973.

M. B. Miles and A. M. Huberman, Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1994.

H. Takeuchi and Y. Shinno, “Comparing the Lower Secondary Textbooks of Japan anda England: a Praxeological Analysis of Symmetry and Transformations in Geometry,” Int. J. Sci. Math. Educ., vol. 18, pp. 791–810, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s10763-019-09982-3.

J. R. Root, S. K. Cox, N. Hammons, A. F. Saunders, and D. Gilley, “Contextualizing Mathematics: Teaching Problem Solving to Secondary Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities,” Intellect Dev Disabil, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 442–457, 2018, doi: 10.1352/1934-9556-56.6.442.

M. Suryani, L. H. Jufri, and T. A. Putri, “Analisis Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Siswa berdasarkan Kemampuan Awal Matematika,” Mosharafa J. Pendidik. Mat., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 119–130, 2020, doi: 10.31980/mosharafa.v9i1.605.

I. Purnamasari and W. Setiawan, “). Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Matematis Siswa SMP pada Materi SPLDV Ditinjau dari Kemampuan Awal Matematika (KAM),” J. Medives J. Math. Educ. IKIP Veteran Semarang, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 207–215, 2019, doi: 10.31331/medivesveteran.v3i2.771.

Y. Nuramalina, A. Hendrayana, and E. Khaerunnisa, “Analisis Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Matematis Siswa SMP Melalui Pendekatan Rigorous Mathematical Thinking ditinjau dari Kemampuan Awal Matematis dan Gaya Belajar Matematis,” JPPM (Jurnal Penelit. dan Pembelajaran Mat., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 133–149, 2020, doi: 10.30870/jppm.v13i1.6035.

N. Yusristia and E. Musdi, “Analysis of Early Mathematical Problem-Solving Ability in Mathematics Learning for Junior High School Student,” 2020.

Published
2022-10-07
Section
Articles